Saving endangered sea turtles by operationalizing Turtle Excluder Devices (TEDs) in Sabah


Sea turtles range extensively across the oceans and play an extremely important role in the marine ecosystems. They help maintain the health of the marine habitat mainly sea grass beds and corals that benefits species such as shrimp, fishes and lobsters – all commercially valuable species. They are also greatly important in terms of the tourism income. In Malaysia, there is not a single tourism poster, brochure or video which does not feature sea turtles. They are viewed as beautiful and majestic reptiles, becoming the main attraction to divers in all top diving locations and hatchery operation sites receives high number of tourist to witness sea turtles laying eggs and releasing hatchlings into the wild.

Sea turtles travel hundreds or even thousand miles from land to sea throughout their lifetime, thus exposing them to countless of threats. Trawl fisheries are considered the number one threat to sea turtles. The Marine Research Foundation (MRF) has been working tirelessly for decades to address the issue by introducing the Turtle Excluder Devices (TEDs). TEDs offer practical low cost solutions allowing catch to be retained while accidental captured sea turtles are ejected from nets.


Trawl fishing vessel using Turtle Excluder Device (TED) (Image courtesy of MRF)

A TED is typically an oval frame with vertical bars that allow shrimp and fish to pass through to the back of the net, while turtles are forced out through an opening covered by a net flap. TEDs improve the quality of the catch, as large objects such as turtles do not crush it, and the reduction of debris in the back of the net saves fuel – a benefit to fishers.

MRF initiated the TEDs Programme in 2007. It began as a volunteer-based initiative, and in 2013, the programme achieved positive success as well as recognition when the Malaysian government made a commitment to develop the project into a nationwide National TEDs programme. Four states along the east cost of Peninsular Malaysia (Terengganu, Kelantan, Pahang and Johor) have fully adopted TEDs since November 2017 and by the year 2022, it will become a full-scale adoption Nationwide!

Sabah will become the fifth State to be fully TED equipped by 2019. With the support from our funders, MRF together with the Department of Fisheries Sabah (DOFS) will be carrying out multiple workshops throughout the next 2 years to all key fishing districts in Sabah. The workshops will include training fishing crews to build, install and repair TEDs, dialogue sessions with fishermen and DOFS, and demonstration at-sea trials (catch comparison with and without TED on shrimp fishing vessels). Our goal is to get as many fishers as possible be ready, knowledgeable and trained in the use of TEDs by this time.


Demonstration and training to build, repair and install TED with fishing crews (Photo courtesy of MRF)


At-sea trial to compare catch on trawl vessels with and without using TEDs (Photo courtesy of MRF)

We started the TEDs project in Sabah by training the DOFS Officers. This was essential in developing the necessary skills required to further champion and advocate for TEDs implementation across Sabah. It was the beginning in establishing the Department of Fisheries Sabah ‘TEDs All-Stars Team’! The team will work closely with MRF to conduct training and outreach activities with fisher communities in Sabah and will, gradually, organize and lead training activities in the future!

It has been estimated between 2000 – 4000 sea turtles are killed each year just in Sabah alone from accidental catch in shrimp trawl fishing. We envision, with effective training and in-depth understanding of the TED initiative, we will reduce the number of deaths of the endangered sea turtles in shrimp trawl fishing, while remaining sensitive to the livelihood of the local fisher communities in Sabah.

To explore in depth of MRF’s TEDs Project , feel free to visit our web page, TEDs Project in Malaysia.


Saving pangolins in Borneo

Why pangolins?

Pangolins, also known as scaly anteaters, are extraordinary animals. They do not have teeth so they dig ant nests and termite mounds with their strong claws and swallow them together with tiny stones to help them digest their food. Their bodies are covered with hard overlapping scales and thick bristles that emerge from the scales, which is unique to Asian pangolins. Female pangolins carry their young on the back of their tails. When sleeping or threatened, pangolins curl into a protective ball. Being nocturnal and elusive, these solitary mammals are difficult to study in the wild, thus many mysteries remain about their behavior and habits which hampers conservation efforts. All pangolins species are rare with decreasing in number because of its value mainly in the Chinese traditional medicine and served as exotic meat. Sunda pangolin (Manis javanica), found only in Southeast Asia, is one of the least studied species in the region. There are no detailed studies on the population levels, ecology or life histories of Sunda pangolins.

Worth to save!

One of the few people working on this species is Elisa Panjang, a local researcher based in Danau Girang Field Centre (DGFC), Kinabatangan, Sabah, Malaysia. As part of her Ph.D. at Cardiff University, her research is focusing on gathering data on the spatial use, habitat selection and behavior in a fragmented and degraded landscape by using multiple approaches to study the species i.e. sign survey, camera trapping, radio and GPS telemetry as well as survey on local knowledge. During her study, she managed to attach radio and GPS units on three pangolins and able to track them for some time, and recorded interesting behaviour which have never been documented before. Her research on wild Sunda pangolins will provide invaluable information especially to make sure the survival of the species, which is already threatened by illegal wildlife trade.

Elisa measuring a Sunda pangolin to be attach with a GPS unit (Photo courtesy of Scubazoo)

Elisa tracks and monitors a GPS-tagged Sunda pangolin (Photo courtesy of Kyle Hendrikson/Danau Girang Field Centre)

Meanwhile, apart from doing research, Elisa is also focusing on public education and raising awareness. As a Pangolin Conservation Officer at DGFC, she works very close with the local villagers, plantation companies, conservation NGOs, zoos, and media to highlight about pangolin e.g. through public talks and exhibitions to increase awareness especially in Sabah. This year, about a thousand school students from three districts in Sabah learnt about pangolins during World Pangolin Day. Well done Elisa!

Elisa delivered a talk to pre-schoolers during World Pangolin Day 2018 (Photo courtesy of Kinabalu International School)


Coral reefs an important natural resource

Malaysia has an estimated 4,000km2 of coral reefs, which has an economic valued of RM145 billion per year. Sadly, 90% of our reefs are under threat from over fishing, development, pollution and integrated local threats. But are we doing anything about it?


Alvin Chelliah/ Reef Check Malaysia

Reef Check Malaysia (RCM) was registered in Malaysia as a non-profit company in 2007, and since then has established an annual survey programme to assess the health of coral reefs around Malaysia (reports are available for download from the website: In the last ten years, RCM has trained over 500 divers to conduct reef surveys at 200 permanent monitoring sites on coral reefs around the country.  RCM is also active in education and awareness programmes with students on Tioman, Sibu and Mantanani. In addition, we have been working with stakeholders in the Tioman island, Sibu Island, and in Mantanani to involve local communities in coral reef management.

Our survey data show that reefs monitored around Malaysia had an average of 43.71% live coral cover and it showed that reefs inside marine protected areas were healthier than those that were not protected by law. It is also clear that the best way to protect reefs is to improve the management of this ecosystem.

_P7A9223-Edit (Copy)

Grant Tompson/ Reef Check Malaysia

We strongly advocate co-management and believe that stakeholders at all levels must be involved in the management and protection of natural resources. It is the only way to promote ownership and to get a fair representation for each stakeholder group. On Tioman, we are working with a group of local islanders know as the Tioman Marine Conservation Group to involve the local community in day-to-day conservation and management activities. They assist with tasks such as mooring buoy installations, reef rehabilitation, cleanups and reef health monitoring. On Mantanani, we are working with local stakeholders to set up a locally managed marine protected area that will benefit both tourism and local fishermen.

Malaysia is blessed with some of the most productive reefs in the world and it is vital that we sustainably manage this natural resource before it lost forever.


What can DNA metabarcoding tell us about the diet of cave nectar bats?

Imagine yourself in a supermarket; you grab a pack of cookies and you scan the barcode behind for the price of the cookies. Now, what if we use this concept to study the diet of nectarivorous bats and hence understand their roles in pollination? This is what VC Lim attempted to do for her PhD research in University of Malaya.

The cave nectar bat, Eonycteris spelaea, is one of only three nectarivorous bats present in Peninsular Malaysia. Through its feeding on nectar and pollen, the cave nectar bat pollinates the commercial crops (e.g., durian and petai) and mangrove plants (e.g., Sonneratia alba). Previously, the diet of cave nectar bat in Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand and Cambodia was studied by identifying the pollen grains collected from the faeces and body of the bats based on the physical features of pollen grains. However, these studies failed to identify many of the pollen grains which lack the distinctive physical features for identification.


Close-up of Cave nectar bat (Eonycteris spelaea), photographed by VC Lim.

Therefore, a new method to study the diet of cave nectar bat is necessary for fully understanding the ecological role of the bats. One potential method is to extract many short fragments of plant DNA from the faeces of bats and later match them to DNA reference sequences in a DNA library, consequently provide information on what plants the bats have been feeding on. This method is known as “DNA metabarcoding”, similar to how a supermarket scanner distinguishes consumer products using the black stripes of the Universal Product Code (UPC).

To date, there are no studies which use DNA metabarcoding to examine the diet of nectarivorous bats. Therefore, VC Lim, a PhD candidate in University of Malaya, teamed up with another researcher, Dr John James Wilson from University of South Wales to explore the potential of DNA metabarcoding in dietary study of cave nectar bats.

VC Lim is extracting DNA of plants from faeces of the cave nectar bats.

As a result, they discovered 55 plant species have been consumed by the cave nectar bats roosting in Dark Cave Conservation Site, Batu Caves between December 2015 and March 2016. Many of these plant species which were detected from the bat faeces had not been reported by previous studies of cave nectar bat’s diet.


The Dark Cave Conservation Site is one of the caves in Batu Caves and is home to a large colony of cave nectar bats. Batu Caves serves as a temple for Hindu prayers and tourist attraction for its cultural and natural heritage. Photographed by VC Lim.

Several of the detected plants are found only in particular habitats such as mangroves, limestone hill and montane forests. Therefore, it is likely that the cave nectar bats are promoting genetic diversity among the populations of plants by dispersing pollen across different habitats. Commercial crops particularly jackfruits, bananas and water apple were frequently detected in the bat faeces, supporting the view that the cave nectar bats are economically important pollinators of commercial crops.

Commercial crops, particularly jackfruit, banana and water apple were frequently detected in the faeces of cave nectar bats. Photographed by VC Lim.

However, non-native plants, which were introduced to Peninsular Malaysia many years ago, were also detected in the bat faeces. If the cave nectar bats preferentially feed on and potentially pollinate the non-native plants, the pollination and hence reproductive success of native plants may be adversely impacted. Therefore, it is important to consider the origin (i.e., native or non-native) of a plant species before gardening and agricultural activities.

Altogether this study has demonstrated the potential of DNA metabarcoding in studying the diet of nectarivorous bats, and revealed the important ecological and economic roles of cave nectar bats despite roosting in a highly disturbed urban cave.

For more details, check out the published work here!

Sunbears released after successful rehabilitation

By Wong Siew Te

The team at the Bornean Sun Bear Conservation Centre (BSBCC) has recently released two rehabilitated sun bears (Helarctos malayanus) into the core area of Tabin Wildlife Reserve, Sabah, Malaysia on 7th March 2018.

One of the released bears, Debbie, was purchased by a guy from Tuaran, and subsequently surrendered to the Sabah Wildlife Department and sent to BSBCC in January 2012. I still remember the night she arrived at the Centre as a little cub. Although she weighed only a few kilograms at that time and estimated to be four months old, she was surely a feisty little black furry ball  nobody dared to approach including me. Over the years, Debbie has grown into a healthy sun bear. She is a keen explorer! After six years in rehabilitation, she has grown to be the perfect candidate for release.

Photo courtesy of BSBCC.

Another sun bear, Damai, arrived at BSBCC in November 2012, when she was found wandering in a car porch at a residential area called “Damai” at Kota Kinabalu, Sabah. We believed that somebody in the neighbourhood must have been keeping her as a pet from here she had escaped. She was rescued and transported to BSBCC.Damai is independent in nature. She knows what she wants and tries to take care of her own needs by herself. Now at six years old, beautiful Damai, weighing 39.6 kg, is ready to be released into the wild.

Both Debbie and Damai are now in excellent condition and are progressing well in BSBCC. Together with 42 other rescued sun bears currently housed at the Centre, they have learned many survival skills to prepare themselves to live in the rainforest for the second time. Both have become very skilled, they climb tall trees and build nests on these tall trees by using branches, liana and green leaves. They love to spend time up in these treetops! They are also excellent in foraging for termites, grubs and invertebrates. They have quickly picked up forest skills. Sometime they do not come back to their bear house for dinner. They prefer to skip dinner that we serve and forage for their own food in the forest enclosure. In short, these two rescued sun bears have completely rehabilitated and are ready to live independently in the wild.

Photo courtesy of BSBCC.

I treated all the rescued sun bears at the Centre as my own children. The bears are my family members, together with 26 full-time staff and volunteers at the Centre. The bond between our bears and staff is strong. We know each of our bears by their faces and individual characters. I remember clearly the night when Debbie and Damai arrived at BSBCC. I have been caring for them in the past six years and now the time to say goodbye has arrived. There is a mix of emotions running through me—bitter, sweet, worried and happy.

I had been feeling uneasy from the moment we left the Centre at 3 am on 7th March 2018., from the 5-hour road trip to Tabin Wildlife Reserve, to the last passage in a helicopter to the release site. My emotional turmoil reached its climax when I bid them goodbye for the very last time, right before I opened their cages and let them roam free in the forest—a forest without fence. Slowly, these black bodied animals with ID collars disappeared into the forest. This is it! From then on, my relationship with these two bears had ended. I could no longer take care of them nor ensure that they live happily ever after. Both Damai and Debbie are now on their own – they are subject to all the threats and challenges that a wild bear may face in the forest.

Photo courtesy of BSBCC.

I really hope that both Debbie and Damai can live long in the forest. It would be even better if they could find and mate with resident males, reproduce, and ensure the survival of the species in this part of the world.

Sun bear populations across Southeast Asia have been threatened from habitat loss over the past several decades of deforestation for timber extraction and agriculture. Today, the biggest threat for sun bears is poaching activities. I hope that these two releases will not only boost local bear population but also raise awareness of sun bear conservation in this part of the world. Sun bears play an important ecological role to maintain a healthy forest ecosystem where clean air, clean water and a stable climate are being generated. The protection of sun bear is the first step to ensure a better future for all of us!

Debbie and Damai are our hopes to achieve this goal!

Full story here: Damai and Debbie gain freedom in Tabin Wildlife Reserve

Who Are We – Langur Project Penang?

The Dusky Langurs (Trachypithecus obscurus), also known by other names, such as lotong, lutong, dusky leaf monkeys and spectacled langur, are distributed from Southern Burma to Peninsular Malaysia, and also found on the island of Penang. Found mostly in forested areas, the dusky langur is arboreal (i.e. lives in trees) and folivorous (i.e. specialize in eating leaves); although they also feed on certain fruits, flowers and young shoots. The dusky langur plays a crucial role in forest regeneration as an essential seed disperser. In many countries, primates like the dusky langur are considered part of its natural heritage, with immense biological interest and importance in ecological cycle.

An alpha male dusky langur (left) and an infant langur (right).

Due to deforestation that is the result of Penang’s rapid development, habitat loss has driven the dusky langur out of their quickly disappearing natural habitats into urban areas. As food sources become scarce, the monkeys are forced to travel between fragmented forests, exposing themselves to road accidents and encounters with other animals—especially humans. Humans often attempt to feed the monkeys, a habit Langur Project Penang (LPP) is working to discourage: not only does this alter the behaviour of the monkeys (i.e. inducing dependency on food handouts, disease transmission due to overcrowding behaviour and increased aggressiveness due to human-primate conflict), it also causes serious internal damage, since human food is not suitable for primates to digest safely.

Langurs roadkills have increased due to forest fragmentation.

Apart from deforestation and habitat fragmentation, another huge threat to the dusky langur is the illegal poaching and wildlife trade. The high demand for exotic animals as pets has caused an unrecorded number of monkey deaths, as poachers must annihilate an entire family group just to retrieve the baby; in a tragic twist, the baby soon follows its family, unable to live long without proper care. Still, most local residents have no idea on the population status of dusky langurs and why it is important to preserve the species and their surrounding natural habitat.

Demand is high on the illegal dusky langur trade

Sadly, demand is high on the illegal dusky langur trade.

With these threats in mind, the LPP positions itself as an outreach project under the umbrella of the Malaysian Primatological Society (MPS) and Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM). LPP is a research project that studies the ecology and behavior of the Dusky Langur. Initiated since January 2016, LPP aims to serve as a platform for environmental research and education for students and the local community. Founded by Joleen Yap, who is now a Ph.D. (Zoology) student in USM, she leads a small team of passionate and enthusiastic individuals of different backgrounds, established LPP to reach out to public of all ages to educate them about the importance of a healthy ecological cycle through fieldwork, citizen science conservation programmes and nature education.

LPP counts members from numerical backgrounds and ethnics!

LPP counts members from numerical backgrounds and ethnics!

LPP is actively involved in various wildlife conservation events and programmes in Penang and other parts of Peninsular Malaysia, where these efforts aim to expose local residents of all backgrounds toward the importance of conserving our natural resources (flora and fauna). To attract people’s attention toward understanding of rainforest ecosystem, LPP places dusky langurs as the ‘ambassador’ of the forest, where people get the chance to learn about the langurs’ homes (natural habitats), friends (sympatric species) and food (native plants). This serves as a complete forest education syllabus to the young and elders.

Our project founder, Joleen, and project assistant, Wen, tracking the langurs on the hills

Our project founder, Joleen, and project assistant, Wen, tracking the langurs on the hills

We will be updating more information regarding LPP soon in this blog! From fieldwork to education and conservation aspects. For more interesting updates regarding LPP, please visit these following links: